A sperm is consisting of 3 parts:
1. Head: The head of sperm contains nucleus. Acrosome inside the head of sperm cell is storing enzyme which is important for fertilization when penetrate into the female’s egg.
2. Midpiece: It is the central part of sperm cell. The midpiece contains a lot of mitochondria that provide energy for sperm motility.
3. Tail: Tail is making sperm cell to be able to swim and controlling the direction while moving as well.
Abnormal sperm can be found in different forms e.g., a huge or tiny head, broken midpiece, cytoplasmic droplet sperm or tail defects such as coiled tail, multiple tails or tail-less sperm.
Whatever type of abnormal sperm morphology can cause fertility problems. Since the abnormality will deteriorate the fertilization competency. Making the delayed embryonic development, poor quality, the lower pregnancy rate and the higher risk of abortion.
If the normal sperm count is significantly low, this situation will be an important indicator for joining the ICSI program. As the fertilization in ICSI program, the only one best sperm will be selected by screening through a microscope or using other special technique before putting directly into the egg. In order to increase the fertilization opportunity and reduce the chance of having the abnormal embryo consequently.
Reference: Prime Fertility Center Co., Ltd.